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(2005). Prisoners of Time. Washington : NECTA. En ligne : <http://www.sevenstaraca ... me%20and%20Learning.pdf>. 
Added by: Agnès Cavet (27 Jan 2011 08:47:56 Europe/Paris)   Last edited by: Marie Musset (01 Feb 2011 12:00:37 Europe/Paris)
Resource type: Government Report/Documentation
BibTeX citation key: anon2005f
Categories: General
Keywords: États-Unis, temps et rythme scolaires
Publisher: NECTA (Washington)
Views: 3242/3840
Views index: 36%
Popularity index: 9%
URLs     http://www.sevenst ... and%20Learning.pdf
Abstract     
In the decade since the publication of Prisoners of Time, the report of the National Education Commission on Time and Learning, little has changed regarding time for formal schooling. The length of the school day and the school year are virtually the same today as they were throughout the 20th century. The profound changes Americans have experienced in technology, demographics and the economy have had minimal effect on the time students spend in school. This remains the case even as education leaders implement an education reform agenda focused on standards, assessments and accountability – an agenda that obviously calls for new ways to use time to achieve powerful learning.
In the original report, the commission argued that while standards must be held constant, time can vary. It would seem logical that as higher aspirations are held for all children, we would be willing to battle traditional structures and practices. Students’ lives have changed. They live in a digital world. They use the Internet, cell phones and other digital devices to access information and to accelerate communica¬tion. For them, time is a resource, not a barrier. We call not only for more learning time, but for all time to be used in new and better ways.
Young people today face a future of employment in a global economy. The growing importance of knowledge-based work favors skills such as abstract reasoning, problem solving, communication and collaboration – skills learned both in and out of school.
Families have changed as well. There are more women in the workforce than ever before and more families with both parents working. And many students live in house¬holds headed by a single parent. Flexible time is essential for all of these families.
A bright spot in the creative use of time is the development of “after-school” or “out-of- school” programs and activities. These programs, in addition to providing safe havens and healthy places for children, contribute to student achievement in unique ways. The many hours spent in after-school and out-of-school activities pro¬vide teaching and learning opportunities that often complement and enrich school-day instruction. Many excellent and effective programs are in place in schools and districts throughout the country. There is much to learn from them that will expand and enhance the ways in which students are taught when they are in school.
Recently, there has been a spate of reports on how U.S. students compare with students in other nations of the world with respect to mathematics and science knowledge. We know that American schoolchildren spend less of their school day receiving substantial academic instruction than students in most of the nations that outperform us in international comparisons.
It is not just math and science that suffer. In the constrained school day and year, many students lose out on the value of the arts and fail to receive adequate instruc¬tion in citizenship and civic participation. An educational program that offers the broadest curriculum is ultimately the most challenging and valuable. The important role of in- and out-of-school programs in providing such time for learning must be promoted. Best practices should be identified, shared and replicated or adapted where possible.
Compared to countries against which our students’ performance is often gauged, U.S. teachers have less time to plan, collaborate and perform research. Flexible time also would enable teachers to interact professionally, observe one another’s teach¬ing, and experience productive staff development. Calls for accountability must be accompanied by assurance that teachers’ work life includes sufficient time for per¬sonal and professional development. Abundant evidence demonstrates that focused professional development can result in improved student performance.
This country still faces the reality of disenfranchised students. These students graduate from school without the skills and attitudes required in today’s workplace or for a successful experience in postsecondary education. They are not adequately prepared to become active civic participants. Their ultimate well-being depends on high expectations and a quality education with fewer time constraints and more seamless learning opportunities. As we note in the report, time must be unlocked and unfettered to achieve the successes we seek. Learning opportunities – in, after and out of school – must be available to all, and linkages among these domains con¬structed to assure maximum student development.
This revised edition of Prisoners of Time is designed to refocus attention on the critical issue of using time as a resource for teaching and learning. It contains the same text as the original report but also includes some up-to-date examples of the creative and productive ways in which schools can use time.
We call on state and local education leaders to take on this agenda as an important opportunity to improve student learning across a broad range of skills – and thus the economic and civic strength of our country.
Added by: Agnès Cavet  Last edited by: Marie Musset
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