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White Barbara Y. & Frederiksen John R. (1998). « Inquiry, Modeling, and Metacognition : Making Science Accessible to All Students ». Cognition and Instruction, vol. 16, n° 1, p. 3–118. 
Added by: Laure Endrizzi (05 Nov 2008 16:12:59 Europe/Paris)   Last edited by: Laure Endrizzi (05 Nov 2008 16:21:21 Europe/Paris)
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: White1998a
Categories: General
Keywords: Ă©valuation
Creators: Frederiksen, White
Collection: Cognition and Instruction
Views: 1103/2411
Views index: 18%
Popularity index: 4.5%
Our objective has been to develop an instructional theory and corresponding curricular
materials that make scientific inquiry accessible to a wide range of students,
including younger and lower achieving students. We hypothesized that this could be
achieved by recognizing the importance of metacognition and creating an instructional
approach that develops students' metacognitive knowledge and skills through
a process of scaffolded inquiry, reflection, and generalization. Toward this end, we
collaborated with teachers to create a computer enhanced, middle school science
curriculum that engages students in learning about and reflecting on the processes of
scientific inquiry as they construct increasingly complex models of force and motion
phenomena. The resulting ThinkerTools Inquiry Curriculum centers around a metacognitive
model of research, called the Inquiry Cycle, and a metacognitive process,
called Reflective Assessment, in which students reflect on their own and each other's
In this article, we report on instructional trials of the curriculum by teachers in
urban classrooms, including a controlled comparison to determine the impact of
including or not including the Reflective Assessment Process. Overall, the curriculum proved successful and students' performance improved significantly on both physics
and inquiry assessments. The controlled comparison revealed that students' learning
was greatly facilitated by Reflective Assessment. Furthermore, adding this metacognitive
process to the curriculum was particularly beneficial for low-achieving students:
Performance on their research projects and inquiry tests was significantly closer
to that of high-achieving students than was the case in the control classes. Thus, this
approach has the valuable effect of reducing the educational disadvantage of lowachieving
students while also being beneficial for high-achieving students. We argue
that these findings have strong implications for what such metacognitively focused,
inquiry-oriented curricula can accomplish, particularly in urban school settings in
which there are many disadvantaged students.
Added by: Laure Endrizzi  
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