Silova Iveta & Kazimzade Elmina (2005). The private tutoring epidemic : When Bad Teachers Become Great Tutors. Bakou (Azerbaidjan) : Center for innovations in education. En ligne : <http://www.spc.fsf.vu.l ... g/Azerbaijan_report.doc>.
Added by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet (01 Jan 1970 01:00:00 Europe/Paris) Last edited by: Laure Endrizzi (30 Oct 2006 18:19:06 Europe/Paris)
|Resource type: Government Report/Documentation
BibTeX citation key: Silova2005
Keywords: enseignement privĂ©, soutien scolaire, tutorat
Creators: Kazimzade, Silova
Publisher: Center for innovations in education (Bakou (Azerbaidjan))
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|URLs http://www.spc.fsf ... rbaijan_report.doc|
"For the majority of Azerbaijanâ€™s children, formal educational instruction neither begins nor ends with school. Approximately 57% of secondary school students report using private tutoring, with 53% of ten-graders and 61% of eleven-graders paying for supplementary private tutoring in secondary school. Many of these children attend private tutoring lessons before the beginning of the school day and proceed from their schools to some form of private tutoring at the end of the school day. Unequivocally, students use private tutoring to prepare for centralized university entrance examinations. They believe that schools are no longer able to provide them with the necessary skills and knowledge to pass university examinations and, therefore, hire private tutors to help them in the process. In this context, university entrance seems practically impossible without studying with private tutors. As this study confirms, 91.8% of university freshmen report using private tutoring in secondary schools. Thus, private tutoring becomes one of the main and most effective mechanisms for students to successfully move from school to higher education institutions.
However, private tutoring is not accessible to all students. Students from poor families and rural communities use the services of private tutors less frequently and spend less on supplementary tutoring compared to students from urban areas. For example, students who perceive their family welfare as below the national average are less likely to use the services of private tutors, compared to children who perceive their family welfare as average or above the national average. Furthermore, students in Baku spend on average 40% more money on private tutoring than students from Ganja and Lenkaran areas. Having less access to supplementary education opportunities and spending considerably less on private tutoring, students from poor families and rural areas have less access to quality education, resulting in inequitable higher education admission outcomes and limited labor market opportunities.
Private tutoring has a mixed impact on public schools. On the one hand, it provides students a chance to extend their learning and gain additional knowledge and skills outside of school. On the other hand, it has a number of negative consequences. This study reveals that private tutoring has begun to distort the public school curricula, put enormous pressure on students, exacerbate social inequities, and accelerate the spread of corruption in the education system. As such, the rapid growth of private tutoring has signalled that Azerbaijanâ€™s students and parents are beginning to lose confidence in public education.
The demand for private tutoring is driven by educational, sociocultural, and economic factors. First, educational factors stem from the public perception of the declining quality of education in public schools. The majority of surveyed students (75.9%) indicates that that low quality of teaching in schools is the main reason for their decision to take private tutoring, explaining that private tutoring offers them a more individualized, innovative approach to learning. Second, sociocultural factors reflect a growing value of education during the transformation period and increasing competitiveness among students to enter higher education institutions in order to succeed in a new market economy. Third, economic factors are related to the governmentâ€™s inability to pay adequate teacher salaries, which has forced many teachers to look for alternative ways to generate income.
Currently, the Azerbaijanâ€™s government takes a laissez-faire approach to private tutoring (i.e. deliberately ignoring the issue), which is not the most appropriate policy solution in the context of decreasing quality of public education, increasing inequities, and widespread corruption in public schools. In the current circumstances, a more active governmental response is necessary. While specific policy action should be formulated with the involvement of major stakeholders (including school teachers, education administrators, parents, government officials, and NGO representatives), the first steps to address the adverse effects of private tutoring on public schools should include such broad actions as public awareness raising about the nature, scale, and implications of private tutoring on the public education system; continuous monitoring of the nature, scope, and impact of private tutoring on public education system, consideration of the necessity to regulate the nature, form, and quality of private tutoring, and efforts to reduce the demand for private tutoring through improving the quality of public education.
This study represents the first attempt in Azerbaijan to thoroughly document the general characteristics of private tutoring (scale, cost, geographic spread, and subjects), the main factors underlying the demand for private tutoring (quality of secondary education, higher education entrance examinations, education financing, etc.), as well as the educational, social and economic impact of private tutoring on the education system. This study draws from both quantitative and qualitative data, including a survey of 913 first year university students and 1019 secondary school students from different regions of Azerbaijan."
Added by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet Last edited by: Laure Endrizzi