Elbadawy Asmaa, Levison Deborah & Ahlburg Dennis (2009). Â« Private and Group Tutoring in Egypt : Where is the Gender Inequality? Â». In Union internationale pour l'etude scientifique de la population.XXVIe congrĂ¨s international de la population, Marrakech, 27 septembreâ€”2 octobre 2009. En ligne : <http://iussp2009.prince ... aspx?submissionId=91279>.
Added by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet (01 Jan 1970 01:00:00 Europe/Paris) Last edited by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet (17 Apr 2009 14:36:05 Europe/Paris)
|Resource type: Proceedings Article
BibTeX citation key: Elbadawy2009
Keywords: Egypte, soutien scolaire, tutorat
Creators: Ahlburg, Elbadawy, Levison
Publisher: Union internationale pour l'etude scientifique de la population (Marrakech)
Collection: XXVIe congrĂ¨s international de la population
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|URLs http://iussp2009.p ... submissionId=91279|
"Although technically illegal, private tutoring has become increasingly widespread in Egypt. For example, it is no longer limited to diploma years or to students attending public schools. Despite recognition of how widespread tutoring has become, the phenomenon has not yet been formally studied. There is anecdotal evidence that private lessons currently constitute a considerable part of householdsâ€™ expenditure. This implies that the estimation of the rates of return on education should be revised to incorporate expenditures on private lessons. In addition, tutoring potentially exacerbates educational (and thereby income) gaps across different income groups and by gender. Accordingly, examining tutoring determinants has important policy implications The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of the nature and determinants of both private and group tutoring in Egypt in order to investigate whether gender bias exists in tutoring decisions, in particular with respect to whether or not to take private lessons and how much to spend on it. Tutoring gender gaps can possibly reflect general gender gaps in education. It is expected that if disparities are present in educational investments in general, it would even be more pronounced in more optional educational investments like that of receiving tutoring. Womenâ€™s education is crucial to the development of the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region. Over and above its intrinsic value, girlsâ€™ schooling has significant benefits to society. Mothersâ€™ education has positive effects on child survival and child health. In addition, the link of womenâ€™s education to lower fertility and better maternal health is well established. Educated mothers also tend to emphasize the education of their children, especially their daughtersâ€™. Equally important, by increasing womenâ€™s labor force participation and their earning capacity, education enhances womenâ€™s ability to influence decision-making at the household level. It also contributes significantly to their ability to exercise their political rights. Despite these benefits, gender disparities in education1 have strongly persisted in MENA countries and in developing countries in general.2 According to the World Development Report (1996), the MENA region exhibits the highest gender gap in education, after South Asia. A considerable body of research has explored schooling gender bias in South Asian countries, but there has been a shortage in empirical research on womenâ€™s education in the case of MENA countries. This is not surprising given the scarcity and inaccessibility of micro-level data in these countries. Existing literature usually just documents gender bias by looking at aggregate level measures of education. For example, studies tend to compare literacy rates, enrollment rates and mean years of schooling by gender (for example, Nagat El-Sanabary, 1993). Aggregate level data, however, does not help explain how individual, family, and community factors affect the extent of the bias and, hence, is not sufficient to the formulation of effective education policies. In the case of Egypt, female literacy and enrollment rates still lag behind that of males. For instance, based on Egypt Labor Market Survey of 1998 (ELMS 98), girls are 2.3 times more likely not to have ever been to school. However, once girls are sent to school, there is no significant gender disparity observed in dropout rates. The remaining of this paper is organized as follows. The second section provides theoretical explanations and evidence on gender bias. The third section reviews literature on tutoring. The fourth section discusses the empirical model followed. Section five presents the empirical results and preliminary findings."
Added by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet Last edited by: AgnĂ¨s Cavet