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Dang Hai-Anh (2007). « The Determinants and Impact of Private Tutoring Classes in Vietnam ». Economics of Education Review, vol. 26, n° 6, dĂ©cembre, p. 683–698. 
Added by: Agnès Cavet (01 Jan 1970 01:00:00 Europe/Paris)   Last edited by: Laure Endrizzi (15 Apr 2009 11:56:39 Europe/Paris)
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.10.003
BibTeX citation key: Dang2007
Categories: General
Keywords: Asie, soutien scolaire, tutorat
Creators: Dang
Collection: Economics of Education Review
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"Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget, and the trend to attend private tutoring is stronger at higher education levels. There is no evidence of gender discrimination in household expenditure on private tutoring. Ethnic minority students spend less on private tutoring at the primary level but not at the lower secondary level, as do students living in rural areas. However, household spending on private tutoring can be significantly reduced either by improving the share of qualified primary school teachers or by improving school infrastructure. Private tutoring is found to have significant impact on a student’s academic performance, but the influence is larger for lower secondary students, especially those who are already doing well at school. This paper contributes to the available estimation techniques by developing a joint Tobit-ordered probit econometric model from the simultaneous Tobit equations of Amemiya (1974) to address the possible endogeneity of household spending on private tutoring."
Added by: Agnès Cavet  Last edited by: Laure Endrizzi
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